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What Are Optical Fiber Amplifiers And How Do They Work?

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Optical Cable Corporation Reports Second Quarter 2015 Financial Results

Sfpex® is internationally recognized for pioneering the design and production of fiber optic cables for the most demanding military field applications, as well as of fiber optic cables suitable for both indoor and outdoor use, and creating a broad product offering built on the evolution of these fundamental technologies. OCC also is internationally recognized for its role in establishing copper connectivity data communications standards, through its innovative and patented technologies.

Founded in 2001, Sfpexoptic is headquartered in Roanoke, Virginia with offices, manufacturing and warehouse facilities located in each of Roanoke, Virginia, near Asheville, North Carolina and near Dallas, Texas. OCC’s facilities are ISO 9001:2008 registered, and OCC’s Roanoke and Dallas facilities are MIL-STD-790F certified.

Optical Cable Corporation, Sfpexoptic, Procyon, Superior Modular Products, SMP Data Communications, Applied Optical Systems, and associated logos are trademarks of Optical Cable Corporation.

Further information about Sfpexoptic® is available at www.sfpex.com.


Simplex OS1 9/125 Singlemode Fiber Optic Patch Cable

FORWARD-LOOKING INFORMATION


This news release by Optical Cable Corporation and its subsidiaries (collectively, the “Company” or “OCC”) may contain certain forward-looking information within the meaning of the federal securities laws. The forward-looking information may include, among other information, (i) statements concerning our outlook for the future, (ii) statements of belief, anticipation or expectation, (iii) future plans, strategies or anticipated events, and (iv) similar information and statements concerning matters that are not historical facts. Such forward-looking information is subject to known and unknown variables, uncertainties, contingencies and risks that may cause actual events or results to differ materially from our expectations, and such known and unknown variables, uncertainties, contingencies and risks may also adversely affect Optical Cable Corporation and its subsidiaries, the Company’s future results of operations and future financial condition, and/or the future equity value of the Company. A partial list of such variables, uncertainties, contingencies and risks that could cause or contribute to such differences from our expectations or that could otherwise adversely affect Optical Cable Corporation and its subsidiaries is set forth in Optical Cable Corporation’s quarterly and annual reports filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) under the heading “Forward-Looking Information.” Sfpexoptic’s quarterly and annual reports are available to the public on the SEC’s website at http://www.sfpex.com. In providing forward-looking information, the Company expressly disclaims any obligation to update this information, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise except as required by applicable laws and regulations.

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Cabling architectures and communication availability

Ensuring communications remain available is vital during a disaster. If workers in the office lose the internet because of a tornado, the business disruption is a problem, but not nearly as much of an issue as it would be if communications go down completely. Installing cabling architectures that interconnect with telecom infrastructure is a key part of a construction process, and how these systems are deployed can impact communications availability during a disaster. Having alternative network options that can provide emergency communications can also help, ensuring that emergency services can be contacted in the event of a disaster event.

Simplex OM2 50/125 Multimode Fiber Optic Patch CableSimplex OM2 50/125 Multimode Fiber Optic Patch Cable

Installing cables to ensure free movement through a building

A poor cabling setup can lead to major problems when disasters strike. Loose wires can clump together, blocking doors, hallways and other areas, preventing people from getting out of a building to escape or into a structure to rescue any trapped individuals. Meeting high standards for safety, including regulations from OSHA and national fire codes can provide a solid foundation for safe and well-designed cable deployment. However, it is important to also consider the quality of the components that keep cables in place and how the wiring systems are laid out in the building to ensure they do not become obstructions during a disaster.

Cabling installation methods could mean the difference between life and death during a disaster. When a tornado or hurricane hits an area, employees must be able to get to safety, or get help, as quickly as possible. Cables that get in the way can be a detriment to this process, but a well-designed system will not only stay out of the way, it could help keep key communication channels available.

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Fiber Optic Cable are usually used in two scenarios

Fiber Optic Cable are used in applications where the optical signal is too strong and needs to be reduced. For example, in a multi-wavelength fiber optic system, you need to equalize the optical channel strength so that all the channels have similar power levels. This means to reduce stronger channels’ powers to match lower power channels.

The attenuation level is fixed at 5 dB, which means it reduces the optical power by 5dB. This attenuator has a short piece of fiber with metal ion doping that provides the specified attenuation.

There are many different mechanisms to reduce the optical power, this picture shows another mechanism used in one type of variable attenuator. Here variable means the attenuation level can be adjusted, for example, it could be from 1 dB up to 20dB.

Fiber Optic Cable are usually used in two scenarios.

The first case is in fiber optic power level testing. Cable are used to temporarily add a calibrated amount of signal loss in order to test the power level margins in a fiber optic communication system.

In the second case, Cable are permanently installed in a fiber optic communication link to properly match transmitter and receiver optical signal levels.

Simplex OM1 62.5/125 Multimode Fiber Optic Patch Cable

Optical Cable are typically classified as fixed or variable Cable.

Fixed Cable have a fixed optical power reduction number, such as 1dB, 5dB, 10dB, etc.

Variable Cable’ attenuation level can be adjusted, such as from 0.5 dB to 20dB, or even 50dB. Some variable Cable have very fine resolution, such as 0.1dB, or even 0.01dB.

This slide shows many different optical attenuator designs.

The female to female fixed Cable work like a regular adapter. But instead of minimizing insertion loss, it purposely adds some attenuation.

The female to female variable Cable are adjustable by turning a nut in the middle. The nut adjusts the air gap in the middle to achieve different attenuation levels.

The male to female fixed Cable work as fiber connectors, you can just plug in your existing fiber connector to its female side.

The in-line patch cable type variable Cable work as regular patch cables, but your can adjust its attenuation level by turning the screw.

For precise testing purposes, engineers have also designed instrument type variable Cable. These instrument type Cable have high attenuation ranges, such as from 0.5 dB to 70dB. They also have very fine resolution, such as 0.01dB. This is critical for accurate testing.

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Disadvantages of Fiber Optics

The science of fiber optics has its advantages and disadvantages. Though there are more advantages than disadvantages, they still are there. One of the largest disadvantages is the overall price of manufacturing and installation of the fiber optic system.
Simplex OM3 10G 50/125 Multimode Fiber Optic Patch CableSimplex OM3 10G 50/125 Multimode Fiber Optic Patch Cable
Not only is a large amount of glass wire needed for one of these systems, but expensive transmitters and receivers are needed to move the data it carries. Setting up the wires and splicing them also comes at a large expense and also with a great degree of difficulty.

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How To Repair The Accidentally Cut Fiber Optic Cables

Underground fiber optic cables can be accidentally cut. The most typical factor which could cause this accident may be the utilization of backhoe while digging. If it happens to you, you can simply search for backhoe and obtain the cut cables.

However, if it is brought on by moles, it will likely be difficult for you to troubleshoot it. You will need some equipment to involve. Here are a few steps suggested for you.

The first thing you need to do is to look for the break in your cable. Commonly, the fiber-optic technicians utilize a device which is known as an optical time-domain reflectometer or OTDR. With the ability to work like radar which sends a light pulse right down to the cable. It will be deflected to your device when it encounters break. It helps technician knows the position of the break.

After knowing the location of the break, you should dig up the cable with the break. Then, strip the fiber around 9 feet of the cable using cable rip cord. Peel the jacket gently so the fiber-optic tubes exposed and get rid of the excess jacket. Then, clean that cable gel using cable gel remover and cut any sheath and yarn. Separate the tubes from the fiber. Avoid damaging the strength member as it is required to hold the cable in fiber splice closure.

 Simplex OM3 10G 50/125 Multimode Fiber Optic Patch Cable Simplex OM3 10G 50/125 Multimode Fiber Optic Patch Cable

The next matter you need to do is to expose fiber cladding at 2 inches by using a fiber-coating stripper oral appliance clean the fiber within the tubes. Trim any damage on the fiber ends using high-precision fiber cleaver. If you want to perform a fusion splice, you have to convey a fusion splice protector to the fiber. Hereafter, you have to clean that striped fiber using lint-free wipes that is soaked in alcohol. In addition, if you want to produce a mechanical connection, you need to put quick-connect fiber-optic connectors to the fiber and clean the stripped fiber with alcohol and lint-free wipes. Ensure that the fiber doesn’t touch anything.

If you make a fusion splice, you have to place the fibers which is spliced within the fusion splicer. Then, fire the fusion splicer in line with the manual. After that, you have to move the fusion connector right into a heat shrink oven. Press a button to heat shrink. In some cases, the fusion splice is preferable to mechanical splice because the signal loss is under 0.1 decibels (dB). However, the mechanical splice has signal loss under 0.5 dB. The very last thing would be to see the connection of fiber-optic using the OTDR. Then put back those splices in to the splice enclosure. Close the enclosure after which rebury the cable.

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How do Fiber Optic Cable Work?

In many ways, fiber optic media addresses the shortcomings associated with copper based media. Because fiber based media use light transmissions instead of electronic pulses, threats such as EMI, crosstalk, and attenuation become a nonissue. Fiber is well suited for the transfer of data, video, and voice transmissions. In addition, fiber-optic is the most secure of all cable media. Anyone trying to access data signals on a fiber-optic cable must physically tap into the media. Given the composition of the cable, this is a particularly difficult task.

Armored Simplex OM1 62.5/125 Multimode Fiber Optic Patch Cable

Unfortunately, despite the advantages of fiber-based media over copper, it still does not enjoy the popularity of twisted-pair cabling. The moderately difficult installation and maintenance procedures of fiber often require skilled technicians with specialized tools. Furthermore, the cost of a fiber-based solution limits the number of organizations that can afford to implement it. Another sometimes hidden drawback of implementing a fiber solution is the cost of retrofitting existing network equipment. Fiber is incompatible with most electronic network equipment. This means that you have to purchase fiber-compatible network hardware.

Fiber optic cable itself is composed of a core glass fiber surrounded by cladding. An insulated covering then surrounds both of these within an outer protective sheath. Figure 3 shows the composition of a fiber optic cable.

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Typical Outdoor Fiber Optic Cables

Fiber optic cable provides protection for the fibers from the environment encountered in an installation. Outdoor Fiber Cable is designed strong to protect the fibers to operate safely in complicated outdoor environment, it can be buried directly, pulled in conduit, strung aerially or even placed underwater. While indoor cables don’t have to be that strong.

Outdoor fiber optic cable is composed of many fibers enclosed in protective coverings and strength members. Common features for fiber optic cable include polarization maintaining, graded index, and metalization. Most outdoor fiber cables are loose buffer design, with the strengthen member in the middle of the whole cable, the loose tubes surround the central strength member. Inside the loose tube there is waterproof gel filled, whole cable materials used and gels inside cable between the different components will help make the whole cable resist of water.

Typical outdoor fiber optic cable types are used for aerial, direct buried and duct applications.

Loose Tube Cables

Loose Tube cables are the most widely used cables for outside plant trunks, as it can be made with the loose tubes filled with gel or water absorbent powder to prevent harm to the fibers from water. Loose Tube Fiber Optic cables are composed of several fibers together inside a small plastic tube, which are in turn wound around a central strength member and jacketed, providing a small, high fiber count cable. They can be installed in ducts, direct buried and aerial/lashed installations for trunk and fiber to the premise applications. Loose tube cables with singlemode fibers are generally terminated by spicing pigtails onto the fibers and protecting them in a splice closure. Multimode loose tube cables can be terminated directly by installing a breakout kit, also called a furcation or fan-out kit, which sleeves each fiber for protection.

Ribbon Cable

Ribbon cable is preferred where high fiber counts and small diameter cables are needed. This cable has the highest packing density, since all the fibers are laid out in rows in ribbons, typically of 12 fibers, and the ribbons are laid on top of each other. Not only is this the smallest cable for the most number of fibers, it’s usually the lowest cost. Typically 144 fibers in ribbons only has a cross section of about 1/4 inch or 6 mm and the jacket is only 13 mm or 1/2 inch diameter! Some cable designs use a “slotted core” with up to 6 of these 144 fiber ribbon assemblies for 864 fibers in one cable! Since it’s outside plant cable, it’s gel-filled for water blocking or dry water-blocked. These cables are common in LAN backbones and data centers.

Armored Fiber Optic Cable

Armored cable is used in direct buried outside plant applications where a rugged cable is needed and/or for rodent resistance. Armored cable withstands crush loads well, for example in rocky soil, often necessary for direct burial applications. Cable installed by direct burial in areas where rodents are a problem usually have metal armoring between two jackets to prevent rodent penetration. Another application for armored fiber optic cable is in data centers, where cables are installed under the floor and one worries about the fiber cable being crushed. This means the cable is conductive, so it must be grounded properly.

A Pair of 10/100M Single Fiber 1-port SC/ST/FC & 1-port RJ45 BIDI WDM Fiber Media Converter

Aerial Fiber Optic Cable

Aerial cables are for outside installation on poles. They can be lashed to a messenger or another cable (common in CATV) or have metal or aramid strength members to make them self supporting. A widely used Aerial Cable is optical power ground wire (OPGW) which is a high voltage distribution cable with fiber in the center. The fiber is not affected by the electrical fields and the utility installing it gets fibers for grid management and communications. This cable is usually installed on the top of high voltage towers but brought to ground level for splicing or termination.

Indoor/Outdoor Cables

Fiber Optic Indoor/Outdoor Cables are designed to meet both the stringent environmental requirements typical of outside plant cable AND the flammability requirements of premise applications. Ideal for applications that span indoor and outdoor environments. By eliminating the need for outside to inside cross-connection, the entire system reliability is improved and with lower overall installation costs.

Underwater and Submarine Cables

It is often necessary to install fibers under water, such as crossing a river or lake where a bridge other above water location is not possible. For simple applications a rugged direct burial cable may be adequate. For true undersea applications, cables are extremely rugged, with fibers in the middle of the cable inside stainless steel tubes and the outside coated with many layers of steel strength members and conductors for powering repeaters. Submarine cables are completed on shore, then loaded on ships and laid from the ship, often while operational to ensure proper operation.

FiberStore offers a comprehensive range of multimode fiber cable and single-mode fiber optic cables. Indoor, outdoor, armoured, tight buffered or loose tube structures, which cover all possible applications.

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Common Types Of Fiber Optic Cables And Patch Cables

1.FTTH Fiber Optic Cable

FTTH (Fiber To The Home), as its name suggests it is a fiber optic directly to the home. Specifically, FTTH refers to the optical network unit (ONU) mounted on home users or business users, is the optical access network application type of closest to users in optical access series except FTTD(fiber to the desktop).

There are 5 main advantages of FTTH:

First, it is a passive network, from the end to the user, the intermediate can be basically passive;

Second, the bandwidth is relatively wide, long distance fits the massive use of operators;

Third, because it is carried business in the fiber, and there is no problem;

Fourth, because of its relatively wide bandwidth, supported protocol is more flexible;

Fifth, with the development of technology, including point-to-point, 1.25G and FTTH have established relatively perfect function

2. Indoor Fiber Optic Cable

Indoor optical cable is classified according to the using environment, as opposed to outdoor fiber optic cable.

Indoor optical cable is a cable composed of fiber optic (optical transmission medium) after a certain process. Mainly by the optical fiber (glass fiber is as thin as hair),plastic protective tube and plastic sheath. There is no gold, silver, copper and aluminum and other metal, fiber optic cable generally has no recycling value.

Indoor fiber optic cable is a certain amount of fiber optic forming to cable core according to a certain way, outsourcing jacket, and some also coated layer of protection, to achieve a communication line of light signal transmission.

Indoor cable is small tensile strength, poor protective layer, but also more convenient and cheaper. Indoor cable mainly used in building wiring, and connections between network devices.

3. Outdoor Fiber Optic Cable

Outdoor fiber optic cable, used for outdoor environment, the opposite of indoor cable.

Outdoor cable is a type of communication line to achieve light signal transmission, is composed of a certain amount of fiber optic forming to cable core according to a certain way, outsourcing jacket, and some also coated with outer protective layer.

Multimode Fiber Optic Loopback Cable

Outdoor cable is mainly consists of optical fiber (glass fiber is as thin as hair), plastic protection tube and plastic sheath. There is no gold, silver, copper and aluminum and other metal cable, generally no recycling value.

Outdoor cable is greater tensile strength, thick protective layer, and usually armored(wrapped in metal). Outdoor cables are mainly applied to buildings, and remote networks interconnection.

4.Fiber Optic Patch Cable

Fiber optic patch cable, also known as fiber jumper, used to connect from the device to fiber optic cabling link. Fiber jumper has a thick protective layer, generally used in the connection between the fiber converter and Fiber Termination Box. Commonly used fiber jumpers include: ST, LC, FC and SC.

Main Categories

Single-mode fiber patch cable: General single-mode fiber jumper is colored in yellow, connector and protective sleeve are blue; long transmission distance.

Multi-mode fiber patch cable: General multimode fiber jumper is colored in orange and some in gray, connector and protective sleeve are beige or black and the transmission distance is short.

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